Word of the Day: La Sinagoga

la sinagoga (seen-ah-GO-gah): synagogue

Today I went with George’s Religious Studies class to the Jewish synagogue in Florence. In this city that is so dominated by Catholicism, it was a delightful change of pace to learn something about other religious traditions in the area. The synagogue is a beautiful building both inside and out. (Unfortunately you aren’t allowed to take pictures inside the synagogue, but if you go to Google images and type Florence synagogue you get some beautiful pictures of the exterior and a few of the interior.

The synagogue was built after the unification of Italy (1861), so it is considered a “new” synagogue. The distinguishing feature of the exterior is the copper dome that has turned green over time. It is very striking looking. The interior has lots of Moorish design elements which make it look exotic. Since it is an orthodox synagogue, the women are separated from the men during services. They used to only be able to sit in the upstairs area called the women’s gallery, but today they are allowed to sit in a section over on the right of the downstairs area. 

We learned quite a bit about the history of the Jews in Florence. They first arrived during the renaissance and were welcomed and protected by Lorenzo the Magnificent (a Medici ruler). The first ghetto was instituted in 1570 and was located across the Arno near the Ponte Vecchio. In the 1600s the ghetto was moved to the very center of Florence, where the Piazza della Repubblica is now. With the unification of Italy came the Emancipation and all jews were given equal rights with all other citizens. 

During WWII, Florentine Jews fared better than in most places in Europe (that’s largely true for Italy as a whole.) Because they were integrated into Italian life, many Florentines helped conceal them from the Nazis. A local bishop helped hide many of them inside convents and monasteries. Italians have a long tradition of circumventing governmental regulations, so they were skilled at helping their neighbors evade the authorities, often at great risk to themselves. Eventually, 287 were taken to the concentration camps, including the local rabbi who stayed with those of his congregation who couldn’t be hidden. This was about 12-13% of the total Jewish population of Florence, which is relatively low. For Italy as a whole the percentage was about 16%. During the war, the Nazis took over the synagogue and used it as a garage for their military vehicles. Before they left, they exploded several land mines inside which damaged one wall. It was repaired shortly after the end of the war.

Upstairs in the synagogue, there is a small museum that tells some of the history and also displays some ceremonial objects dating from the 17th century onward. There is even a torah scroll in a display case, which our guide explained is very unusual for an orthodox synagogue. Usually, when a torah scroll is no longer usable, it is buried in the cemetery. The one they have on display was damaged during the flood of the Arno river in 1966. They decided to make it a part of their museum so that non-Jews would have an opportunity to see a torah scroll.

One of the things I found fascinating is that Jews don’t consider the synagogue sacred in the same way that Catholics consider a church or basilica sacred. The building itself isn’t consecrated. It is the torah that is considered holy, and by extension, the arc that houses the torah. If the torah is residing in the arc, the curtain will be closed and the lamp will be burning. If the lamp is extinguished and the curtain is open, then the arc is no longer sacred. The building is just a building. This makes sense for a mobile and persecuted people. They often had to meet in secret and their “synagogues” just looked like ordinary homes or buildings. The most sacred part of their religious ceremony was portable. 

Overall, the students seemed to really enjoy the visit. I thought it was a wonderful way to get them out into Florence and expose them to a part of the city that most tourists never see. This is just one of many examples of spending a good amount of time in a place to get to know it well.

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5 thoughts on “Word of the Day: La Sinagoga

  1. In case George doesn’t already know, here are three Zen centers in Florence that may be of interest. Both the Soto and Rinzai schools, the two main schools of Zen Buddhism, are represented. I’m unfamiliar with Vietnamese Zen, but the lineage name is famous.

    Amici di Thay (Thay’s Friends)
    via A.Giacomini 12
    FIRENZE
    I-50132
    Italy
    Contact: Roberto Del Mastio
    Tel: (+39) 055-578812
    Denomination: Vietnamese Zen
    Lineage: Thich Nhat Hanh

    ——————————————————————————–
    Centro Zen Firenze
    c/o Deva del Tiglio
    Via San Domenico 77
    FIRENZE
    I-50132
    Italy
    Tel: (+39) 339.8826023
    E-mail: centro@zenfirenze.it
    Internet site
    Denomination: Japanese Soto School
    Coordinator: Anna Maria Myoshin Marradi

    ——————————————————————————–
    Scuola di Scaramuccia Firenze
    FIRENZE
    Italy
    Contact: Massimo Squilloni
    Tel: (+39) 55 – 540726
    E-mail: masqui@tiscalinet.it
    Denomination: Japanese Rinzai School
    Lineage: Yamada Mumon
    Teacher: Engaku Taino (Mario Luigi)
    Affiliated to: Zenshinji Scaramuccia

    • Paul, thanks for sending this information. It’s probably too late for George to organize a trip for his students, but perhaps the two of us can go visit while we are here. He may be able to pass this along to his students as well, and to future teachers who might be interested.

  2. I’m not sure I agree with your assessment that the Jewish belief, that the Torah is sacred while the Synagogue is not, has to do with Jews being a mobile and persecuted people. Were Jews persecuted or mobile when they built the Synagogue? The belief is strange also because of the monumental importance that the Jewish faith places on worshiping in a central temple. (It’s admittedly hard to do that when that temple keeps getting destroyed.)

    The thing about Jews is that they have nearly 3 millenia of history, so any historical generalization about Jews is likely to have been true for only a portion of that history, and only in certain geographical regions.

    • Hi Wyll, your points are well taken. This particular synagogue was built in the late 1800s, well after lots and lots of persecution. In Florence, the Jews didn’t end up fleeing as they often did in other places, they were instead confined to the ghetto and restricted in their movements, activities, and livelihoods. They were only able to build the synagogue after the Emancipation that gave them equal rights. Before that, services were held in small, unadorned buildings in the ghetto.

      The guide talked specifically about Jews worshipping anywhere and in any way they can, on a beach, on a mountain, in a home. For lots of their history they have had to hide their worship services in homes or unmarked buildings. It doesn’t mean the synagogue isn’t important to them, but the most important thing is the torah itself.

      You’re right about generalizations. I was trying to make sense out of this new information that synagogues aren’t consecrated and aren’t the central focus. Perhaps I overstepped.

      Your comments fit nicely into the Jewish tradition of argument and discussion. One of my favorite things that the guide said was that there is a joke amongst Jews that if you have one Jew, you have 20 opinions (on the same subject.)

      • Ah. That’s interesting. I didn’t mean to say that you overstepped, I was just wondering whether Jews were persecuted during the time and place of the synagogue’s construction, and it sounds like they were (or at least just prior to the Emancipation that allowed them to build the Synagogue).

        The guide’s joke is funny.

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